Anonymous painting of Cai Wenji and her Xiongnu husband (Zuoxianwang) dated from the Southern Song DynastyCai Yan (birth and death dates unknown), style name Wenji, was a Han Dynasty poet and musician. She was the daughter of Cai Yong. Her style name was originally Zhaoji, but was changed to Wenji during the Jin Dynasty to avoid a naming conflict with Sima Zhao, the father of the Jin Dynasty’s founding emperor Sima Yan. Cai spent part of her life as a prisoner of the Xiongnu until the warlord Cao Cao paid a heavy ransom to bring her back to the Han Dynasty’s domain in 207.

Anonymous painting of Cai Wenji and her Xiongnu husband (Zuoxianwang) dated from the Southern Song Dynasty
Cai Yan (birth and death dates unknown), style name Wenji, was a Han Dynasty poet and musician. She was the daughter of Cai Yong. Her style name was originally Zhaoji, but was changed to Wenji during the Jin Dynasty to avoid a naming conflict with Sima Zhao, the father of the Jin Dynasty’s founding emperor Sima Yan. Cai spent part of her life as a prisoner of the Xiongnu until the warlord Cao Cao paid a heavy ransom to bring her back to the Han Dynasty’s domain in 207.