The Turkish Army’s Entry to Izmir during the Turkish War of Independence, 1922
The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: İstiklâl Harbi, literally meaning “Independence War” or Kurtuluş Savaşı, literally meaning “Liberation War”; May 19, 1919 – July 24, 1923) was a war of independence waged by Turkish nationalists against the Allies, after the country was partitioned by the Allies following the Ottoman Empire’s defeat in World War I.The Turkish National Movement (Kuva-yi Milliye) in Anatolia culminated in the formation of a new Grand National Assembly (GNA) by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues. The GNA successfully mobilized its resources. After the end of the Turkish-Armenian, Franco-Turkish, Greco-Turkish wars, the Treaty of Sèvres was abandoned and the Treaty of Lausanne was signed in July 1923. The Allies left Anatolia and Eastern Thrace and then the formation of the Republic of Turkey was declared in October 1923. The establishment of the Turkish National Movement led to the end of the Ottoman millet system and with Atatürk’s reforms created a modern, secular nation-state on the political front.